Water Purification

Water Purification Osmosis, the simple experiment of a column of wine capped at the bottom with a membrane from a pig’s bladder and immersed into a vessel of pure water has intrigued many for 200 years.  Although Priest Nollett expected that the column of wine would force flow downward through the membrane into the water, ….  Read More

An Engineers View of Osmosis

Engineers do not study osmosis.. It was a chain of circumstances that led this engineer to study the theory and history of osmosis. We backed into offering a new theory and explanation for osmosis.

Covid-19

Covid-19 pandemic has opened my eyes to the incredible complexity of the human body and to the many scientists and engineers that have improved our understanding and are working on developing solutions. We still have a long way to go

Cell Transport Models

We have looked at vesicles, cell behavior, and biological osmosis.    Basically, living organisms are composed of single or multiple cells.    From the “Fundamentals of Medical Physiology”,   we know that the cell is the smallest unit of life and  cells are the fundamental building block of all living things.    Cells take in nutrients to generate energy ….  Read More

Honey

Honey is a natural topic for Valentine’s Day.   Here, we are discussing natural honey.  A sweet viscous liquid produced by honeybees.     A hive of honeybees can produce 100 pounds of extra honey annually and contains more than 60,000 bees.  Each bee produces a partial spoonful of honey during its three to 5-week lifetime.  There are ….  Read More

Osmosis History

We recently requested a professional review for our book “Osmosis: The Molecular Theory”.      That was again an interesting experience.     We have had the opportunity to find reviewers who are incompetent or dishonest.  Sometimes it is difficult to spot the difference from a short conversation.  So,  we will review osmosis history once again.    Osmosis was discovered ….  Read More

Rocket Sled

Before we wrote the Theory of Osmosis, I helped a friend build a track grinder for a rocket sled track.   I had been working on the project for about a year when I was needed at the project site near Alamogordo, NM  to get the track grinder building project started.   We were grinding the top ….  Read More

Cell Behavior

We were intrigued by the photos and blowups in John Clancy’s excellent book “The Human Body-Close Up” we browsed through the book from the back and were amazed at the detailed photos of the human body and its various parts. We were surprised when we approached the front of the book to find a blowup ….  Read More

Difference between Diffusion and Osmosis.

Quora digest posed the question “What is the difference between Diffusion and Osmosis?” We reviewed Guyton’s Textbook of Medical Physiology.   He notes three modes for transport of ions and molecules through a cell membrane: diffusion, osmosis, and active transport.    We have previously looked at active transport.     The active transport models were  developed to explain movement ….  Read More

Biological Osmosis

The osmosis experiment demonstrated that water flows uphill through a membrane from the pure water side into the wine. A large pressure applied to the wine stopped the flow of water into the wine.  Later experiments showed that a sugar water solution could replace the wine.  This led to Van’t Hoff’s theory for osmosis that ….  Read More